Jakarta’s toxic air kills public life

Polka dots, baby animals, checkers and stripes are trendy patterns picked by Jakarta’s mask wearers that try to add some fun to their daily commute through exhaust fumes that persistently hang in the air. The cute prints belie the gravity of the city’s air pollution, accountable for acute respiratory infection in children and adults alike. Coupled with substandard living conditions including overcrowding, malnutrition and lack of healthcare, it is the urban poor that are affected the most from breathing in the toxic air. While persons of greater socioeconomic status are able to lessen the impact by living and working in a protected environment, the urban poor that include 1.5 million informal sector workers are neglected. Respiratory infection is the cause of 12.5% of Jakarta’s deaths[1].

The city’s toxic air problem is palpable out on the street. Wisps of grey smoke rise from pockets of abandoned land; things of any monetary value are salvaged and thrown into a pile, while general rubbish is incinerated on site in the midst of houses and schools. Smokers light up in restaurants, malls and hotels despite the government’s recent efforts to enforce and monitor smoking ban in public indoor areas[2]. Domestic and industrial sectors continue to depend on cheap fuel like oil and coal while tailpipe emissions contribute further to Jakarta’s pollution mix: suspended particulates, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Indonesia’s vehicles have grown in number from 19 million in 2000 to 81 million in 2010. This number is projected to reach 106 million by 2025 – about 75% of them will be motorcycles[3]. Ade, a taxi driver in his 60’s, claims running a restaurant would be easier. “I work for 18 hours a day. I have five children – two are married thankfully – it is tough to support a big family. In slow moving traffic, I don’t take home much. Taxi rental is very expensive,” he gazes at the crawling cars and motorcycles ahead. He has no choice but to draw in and recirculate their exhaust fumes throughout his 18-hour work day; otherwise the indoor air gets too stuffy with carbon dioxide. Home to 12 million people during the day, Jakarta’s congestion is destroying livelihood and killing lives. Meanwhile Indonesia is exhausting its oil reserves, and will run out by the mid-2020s[4].

While the detrimental effects of air pollution on health and economy have been studied for decades, its influence on public life has been overlooked:

– Jakarta is a city for motor vehicles. Walking/cycling is not only unsafe due to the lack of separate paths, it is also unsafe and unpleasant because of the toxic air. In turn, the air encourages people to drive and get to their destination as quickly as possible: a vicious cycle;
– Streets are dirty, noisy and unsafe. There is no open space for people to congregate, interact, exchange ideas and learn about others. A good city should be a platform for collective economic advancement[6];
– Public spaces in developing cities are an opportunity to create jobs for informal workers. They should be attractive and accessible by all citizens. The few outdoor public spaces in Jakarta are seldom used due to air pollution, and even then, only enjoyed by those of higher socioeconomic status;
– Existing landmarks like Fatahillah Square are underutilized and do not offer an invitation for people to stay;
– Air conditioned malls have replaced markets and vendors endanger their lives on reduced street corners;
– Public parks and sports facilities are rare and city dwellers are removed from nature. Outdoor activities are not fun in toxic air; and
– People desire to live in gated, mixed-use high rises with less noise and pollution, and consequently public life on the ground level dies out. Social integration becomes a more distant future.

Not only is clean air a basic human right, it is the essence of public life. For 45% of the total Indonesian population projected to live in urban slums by 2015[6], their livelihood and life depend on it. Jakarta has a long way to go, but its bus rapid transit system (TransJakarta) and a new more detailed zoning map may be a good start[7].

[1] OCHA/IRIN & UN Habitat. (2007). Tomorrow’s Crises Today: The Humanitarian Impact of Urbanization. Progress Press Co. Ltd. Malta.
[2] http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/12/12/smoking-ban-deputy-gov-calls-heavier-sanctions.html
[3] Ministry of Environment. (2011). Urban Air Quality Evaluation in Indonesia Blue Sky Program Volume 1.
[4] http://www.economist.com/news/asia/21584044-scandal-regulator-does-crucial-sector-no-favours-gusher
[5] Glaeser, Edward. (2012). Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier. Penguin Books
[6] http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/02/13/beyond-statistics-poverty.html
[7] sosialisasirdtrdkijakarta.com

Masks help?
Motorcyclists, pedestrians, street vendors and guards wear masks outside for protection from fumes.
Jakarta's land use is based on organic growth. Old houses, high rises, cemeteries, malls, retails, school all jumped into the city to make more people commute.
Jakarta’s land use: houses, high rises, rubbish incineration (informal), cemeteries, malls, retail stores, schools all co-exist without much consideration to people’s movements.
At Sunda Kelapa port, a pile of unknowable rubbish is burned.
At Sunda Kelapa port, a pile of unknowable rubbish is burned.
Kids wait to be picked up after school on a busy street.
Kids wait to be picked up after school on a busy street.
Rubbish is 'collected'.
Almost 20% of the city’s rubbish is dumped in its water bodies. Streets are also often filthy as the city does not provide waste collection service. Only the rich can afford to hire a binman privately. (more on Jakarta’s binman: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16722186)
Bajaj (motorcycle ricksaw) drivers wait for customers near Jakarta Kota Station. There isn't all that much to see here, except the moving traffic.
Bajaj (motorcycle ricksaw) drivers wait for customers near Jakarta Kota Station. There isn’t all that much to see here, except the traffic.
Fatahillah Square provides a privately operated bike rentals but the city has no bike network. You may go around in circles within the square.
Fatahillah Square provides privately operated bike rentals but the city has no bike network. You can ride around the square.
Public spaces are rare in Jakarta, but even existing ones are not used often. Staying outside is unpleasant due to the air pollution.
Public spaces are rare in Jakarta, but even existing ones are not used often. Staying outside is unpleasant due to the air pollution.
Without these bollards motorcyclists would ride right through the square.
Without these bollards motorcyclists would ride right through the square.
Passengers wait for Transjakarta, Jakarta's bus rapid system that began operation in 2004. It now carries more than 350,000 passengers everyday on the dedicated bus lane.
Passengers wait for Transjakarta, Jakarta’s bus rapid system that began operation in 2004. It now carries more than 350,000 passengers everyday on the dedicated bus lane.
As more land is bought up to develop high rises, malls and hotels, the increasing number of urban migrants are pushed into smaller areas near railway tacks and canal banks.
As more land is bought up to develop high rises, malls and hotels, the increasing number of urban migrants are pushed into smaller areas near railway tacks and canal banks.
1.5 million informal workers make up 35% of Jakarta's work force.
1.5 million informal workers make up 35% of Jakarta’s work force.
Gated houses make up a rich neighbourhood.
Security is taken seriously in rich neighbourhoods with tall gates, fences, CCTV and security guards.
A park in an affluent area of Central Jakarta is well maintained and attractive, but the fumes and noise from adjacent streets make it hard to use.
Suropati Park is well maintained, attractive and open, but unprotected from the fumes and noise of adjacent streets.
Developers can build as high as they like with a government degree. A revised zoning map with height restrictions, currently under review, may change the city's future.
Developers can build as high as they like with a government degree. A revised zoning map with height restrictions, currently under review, may change the city’s future.

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(c) 2014 Julia Suh

Urbia by Julia Suh is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://juliasuh.com.
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Why Seoul must scale down

In the eyes of South Koreans that lived through the aftermath of the Korean War (1950-1953), the country’s economic success is deeply rooted in their work ethic and relentless fight for democracy and freedom. “Young people nowadays, they just don’t know. They don’t know how we survived- collecting scraps and eating anything digestible. What are they thinking, driving fancy cars they can’t afford and carrying Louis Vuitton handbags to show off. Me? I don’t even have a car! Biking is not possible, it is too dangerous here, but buses are great,” says Jai, a retiree in his mid-sixties. Born to farmer parents, getting out of poverty wasn’t easy for him and his 6 siblings, but he now lives in a modern apartment in Seoul Capital Area with his wife and enjoys mountain views from their living room. His son and daughter-in-law recently moved to an apartment seven stories below, to seek help raising their young kids. For young Seoulites, putting food on the table and having a roof over head is not enough. They like to enjoy luxuries that their parents and grandparents could not: view of city lights from a high rise, latest sedans, Samsung flat-screens, trips overseas, dining out, individually packaged food and elegantly decorated cafes and bars are some of their aspirations. Unfortunately, most people spend a lot of time, money and effort trying to look wealthier than they are. “If you don’t look rich, people don’t treat you nicely. They don’t respect you. So I know why people go out of their ways to buy things they can’t afford. There are even new terms for such people- Dwenjangnyuh (female) and Dwenjangnam (male). What’s funny is that they end up marrying each other!” Jai laughs.

While recycling is well practiced in Seoul, 996 kg of waste is produced per person annually¹. Individually packaged food is considered hygienic and high-end.
While recycling is well practiced in Seoul, 996 kg of waste is produced per person annually¹. Individually packaged food is considered hygienic and high-end.
This official rubbish bag costs 35 cents at a local supermarket. Heavy fine applies if other types of bags are used.
Seoul City’s official rubbish bag costs 35 cents at a local supermarket. Fine applies if other types of bags are used.

South Korea’s sudden wealth and success arrived with side effects. People want to protect their social status and disassociate with those ‘below’ them. Gated, fenced and semi-closed to non-residents, Seoul’s most common housing typology, Danji, manifests such trend. Danji was initially Korean government’s response to the rapidly increasing housing demand following the war. It is a series of apartments, typically 10-20 stories and almost identical, developed based on a single masterplan per neighbourbood. Depending on existing amenities, it may include new retail, basement/ground level parking, schools and offices. Physical barriers between neighbourhoods, like 8-lane roads and 3-9 meters tall sound barriers, ensure there is no interaction between different communities, perhaps unintentionally. Although there have been recent efforts to improve major public spaces including Cheonggyecheon stream and Gwanghwamun square, little consideration is given to the role of smaller shared spaces in each neighbourhood. Apartment towers stand tall much like Corbusier’s vision of Towers in a Park, except there is no park, only a parking lot. Tom is a 6th grader who is always busy with after school activities. During his study breaks, he likes to kick a ball around in the ground level parking lot of his apartment, although it doesn’t allow much freedom or safety. He says “It is OK, I just have to be careful not to hit any cars or get hit by cars. There is nowhere else to go close by.”

Typical pedestrian entry to a Danji (apartment complex). Cars and perimeter fencing are predominant features of a Danji.
A pedestrian entry to a Danji (apartment complex). Parking spaces and fences are predominant features of a Danji.
Around Danji are lots and lots of stores on the ground level selling everything from food and clothes to books and glasses. Upper levels are typically taken up by offices and private academies.
Around Danji are lots and lots of stores on the ground level selling everything from food and clothes to books and glasses. Upper levels are typically taken up by offices and private academies.
Signage.
Signage regulations have only recently kicked in. Most building facades are still a mess.
Mokdong Hyperion is a mixed use apartment development that includes lower level stores and offices.
Mokdong Hyperion is a mixed use apartment development that includes lower level stores and offices.
Car parking is provided in 3 basement levels, freeing up the ground level for pedestrians.
In Mokdong Hyperion car parking is provided in 3 basement levels, freeing up the ground level for pedestrians.
Most apartments provide automatic parking system. If not included in the rent, one spot costs about $40/month.
Most apartments in the city centre provide parking. If not included in the rent, automated parking system like this one costs about $40/month.
Gwanghwamun (광화문) sits between two significant public spaces: Gyeongbokgung Palace (behind the gate) and the newly opened Gwanghwamun Square(광화문광장). Unfortunately the square is more like an island with 6-lane roads surrounding it.
Gwanghwamun (광화문) sits between two significant public spaces: Gyeongbokgung Palace (behind the gate) and the newly opened Gwanghwamun Square (광화문광장). Unfortunately the square is more of an island than a square, with 6-lane roads surrounding it.
Sejong Center for the Performing Arts (세종문화회관) set up a small outdoor stage. The music however cannot win over traffic noise behind it.
Sejong Center for the Performing Arts
(세종문화회관) sets up a small outdoor stage facing Gwanghwamun Square. The music however cannot win over traffic noise behind it.
On special occasions, cars are banned from entering the square perimeter. But not for today's event.
On special occasions, cars are banned from entering the square perimeter. But not for today’s event.
Cheonggyecheon (청계천) restoration project initiated by Lee Myung-bak in 2003 (later the 10th President of South Korea) provides a much needed break from the traffic and heat.
Cheonggyecheon (청계천) restoration project initiated by Mayor Lee Myung-bak in 2003 (later the 10th President of South Korea) provides a much needed break from the traffic and heat.

The name of your apartment may represent your socioeconomic status and also put your kids in a better school. Finding the right school with a strong reputation is a critical issue for Koreans that take education seriously. “My husband and I decided to have only one child because we both work, and we want to make sure we can give her all the support she needs. So recently we moved to Gangnam- it is an expensive area but has great high schools and private academies. The move means my commute to work is longer but that is what I have to do,” says Myung, a professional in music business. When Myung’s daughter graduates from high school, she will probably continue to live with her parents until she gets married, like most other young Koreans, regardless of how far her university or work is. The lack of affordable housing near work, coupled with tight-knit family structure means some of her family members will most likely be sitting still in a car or public transport for over an hour ten times a week. “Bike to school? It sounds hard! Even my 10-min walk to the subway station is tiring,” says Hyun, a 2nd year university student. While Koreans are aware being active has health benefits, physical exercise is not valued as much in Korea as it is in the west (perhaps because it is undervalued in school in the shadow of core subjects like maths, science and English). Instead people of all ages especially women, from high school students to senior citizens, tend to go on various diets and avoid any strenuous ‘labour’. Opportunities for Korean adults to participate in sports are rare, partly due to the lack of accessible neighbourhood parks and poor outdoor air quality. Seoul’s automobiles are responsible for 3/4 of nitrogen dioxide emissions, a toxic pollutant that affect human respiratory system.

While Seoul’s dependence on automobile, lack of diversity in housing typology and waste generation are urgent problems to solve, its high population density supports the city’s safety, efficiency and convenience. Seoul Capital Area is home to 25.6 million people, about half of South Korea’s total population, while occupying only 12% of the country’s land.

The network of buses and subways with integrated ticketing system transports 11.9 million commuters everyday. The subway runs every 2-3 minutes at peak hours through well-maintained stations, equipped with escalators, lifts, toilets, clear information boards and signage and glass barriers on platforms. Trains offer phone reception, TV screens and internet. By 2020, 9 more lines over 136km will be added in Gyeongi Province². The subway system is so reliable that a new business called Subway Quick Helper popped up recently – its service is to hand-deliver packages via subway, delivery time guaranteed. Buses run less frequently, but tech-savvy Korean use apps like Seoul Bus App to check instantly where the bus is and how long it will take. Just missed the one? The app will also say when the next one will arrive. Public transport essentially gives people the opportunity to look into other people’s lives, learn to respect diversity and share their environment.

Nine lines of Seoul Metropolitan Subway carry almost 7 million commuters everyday. With underground phone reception, wifi and TVs, you are never bored.
Nine lines of Seoul Metropolitan Subway carry almost 7 million commuters everyday. With underground phone reception, wifi and TVs, riders are never bored.

High density also offers passive surveillance in public spaces. It is not unusual for an 8-year old to walk to school alone, or for a high school student to take the bus or walk between private academies before heading home around midnight. Restaurants serving hungry students and late night workers illuminate the street until late night. In a city where delivery services from food to dry cleaning are quick and reliable, Seoulites’ high car ownership rate makes no sense.

Private institutions like this one (literal translation 'University Academy', ) take up kids' time till around midnight. High school students compete relentlessly to get accepted into Seoul's best universities.
Private institutions like this one (literal translation ‘University Academy’, ) take up kids’ time till around midnight. High school students compete relentlessly to get accepted into Seoel’s best universities.

Seoul’s urban fabric is based on one lifestyle for all – big towers in big parking lots with massive roads and parking disregard South Korea’s aging population and low birth rate. The current policy does not favour smaller, human scale, energy saving forms of mobility, housing and lifestyle: automobile owners should be responsible for air pollution, parking space, road space and accidents; shared car and bike systems must be an economically viable and convenient alternative to ownership; biking should be safe, hip and easy; walking should be pleasant, relaxing and interesting; medium rises with shared roof gardens should be promoted; car-less neighbourhoods should be rewarded with more community space. Only then, people like Jai and Tom will have dignified access to their city.

Traditional markets like this are hard to find. Super stores like E-mart are more popular with ample parking space.
Traditional markets like this are hard to find these days. Super stores like E-mart with ample parking space are more popular.
Restaurants line up a street in the heart of Seoul.
Restaurants line up a pedestrian-only street in the heart of Seoul.
Bokchon still maintains traditional forms of housing and neighbourhood. Seoul's population no longer supports single dwellings but Bokchon's scale is a lesson that alternative forms of housing are also possible.
Bokchon still maintains traditional forms of housing and neighbourhood. Seoul’s population no longer supports single dwellings but Bokchon’s scale is a lesson that alternative forms of housing are also possible.

¹Economist Intelligence Unit. (2011). Asian Green City Index. Munich: Siemens AG.
²http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/society/area/596354.html

Creative Commons License

(c) 2014 Julia Suh

Urbia by Julia Suh is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://juliasuh.com.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at info@juliasuh.com.